Prosthetic iris devices.
Congenital iris defects may usually present either as subtotal aniridia or colobomatous iris defects. Acquired iris defects are secondary to penetrating iris injury, iatrogenic after surgical excision of iris tumours, collateral trauma after anterior segment surgery, or can be postinflammatory in nature. These iris defects can cause severe visual disability in the form of glare, loss of contrast sensitivity, and loss of best corrected visual acuity. The structural loss of iris can be reconstructed with iris suturing, use of prosthetic iris implants, or by a combination of these, depending on the relative amount of residual iris stromal tissue and health of the underlying pigment epithelium. Since the first implant of a black iris diaphragm posterior chamber intraocular lens in 1994, advances in material and design technology over the last decade have led to advances in the prosthetic material, surgical technique, and instrumentation in the field of prosthetic iris implants. In this article, we review the classification of iris defects, types of iris prosthetic devices, implantation techniques, and complications.