Adrenal incidentaloma and the Janus Kinase 2 V617F mutation: A case-based review of the literature.
Adrenal incidentaloma was detected in an 81-year-old male patient and a 37-year-old female patient who had been diagnosed with essential thrombocytosis. Each patient's Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F mutation was positive, and they were evaluated as having non-functional adrenal incidentaloma. The JAK2 activates the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins which then activate the phosphoinositol-3 kinases, Ras, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, and transcription. Constitutive activation causes cell proliferation and dysregulation of apoptosis. It is thought that STAT3 activation-mediated JAK family kinases have a central role in the solid tumor cell series. Permanent activation of STAT3 and STAT5 causes tumor cell proliferation, survival, metastasis, and an increase in tumor-mediated inflammation in solid and hematologic tumors. According to our literature screening, irregular JAK signaling, seen at the pathogenesis of many solid and hematologic tumors, has not been previously evaluated with regard to adrenal tumors. As a result, our cases are the first coexistence of JAK V617F mutation with adrenal incidentaloma in the literature. Because of this, we think that JAK2 mutation must be evaluated to clarify the etiology of adrenal incidentalomas.