Rare Diseases Symptoms Automatic Extraction

ASN540SER mutation is associated with a mild form of hypochondroplasia: a 7 years follow-up in an Italian boy.


Skeletal dysplasias (SKD) are genetic disorders that result in the abnormal development of part or all of the skeleton and are commonly associated with short stature. The most common SKDs that typically result in short stature include achondroplasia/hypochondroplasia (HCH) both caused by different mutations in the same gene. HCH diagnosis is based on the clinical appearance during development and conventional X-ray findings. In about 70% of patients, missense mutations in the gene coding for the fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) affects the amino acid at position 540, mostly resulting in the amino acid exchange N540K.Subjects with HCH, heterozygous for the N540K substitution are significantly more disproportionate than individuals without this mutation. We report the clinical and radiographic features of an Italian family with HCH with an unusual N540S mutation, inside the common mutation hot spot of this condition. This is the first case reported in Italy and the third in the literature. During a 7-years-follow-up, the boy started the puberty at the age of 11.3 years and the growth spurt was observed between 13.7 and 14.9 years (+ 9.1 cm.).During pubertal development the sitting height (SDS) improved from - 1.5 to - 0.6 and the subischial leg length (SDS) progressed from - 2.6 to - 3.3.At the age of 16.7 year the standing height was 157.6 cm ( - 2.4 SDS), testicular volume was 15 ml and bone age 16.5 year. The present study and the other two cases reported in the literature stress the important role of the asn 540 site in the tyrosine kinase I domain in the pathogenesis of HCH and underline the importance that, in patients with HCH who do not have the common N540K mutation, sequence analysis of the tyrosine kinase I domain of FGFR3 should be performed to exclude other changes in that region.