[Rickets-like genetic diseases].
This paper summarizes the clinical features, causative genes and treatment progress of patients with rickets-like genetic diseases, including X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), hypophosphatasia, achondroplasia, vitamin D-dependent rickets, pycnodysostosis and ectodermal dysplasia, who visited the pediatric or child health clinic due to the symptoms of rickets, including bow legs, delayed closure of the anterior fontanelle, and sparse hair. Children with XLH usually go to hospital for bow legs and short stature, and biochemical evaluation reveals significantly low serum phosphorus so it is easily diagnosed. This disease is treated using phosphate mixture and 1,25(OH)2D3, which is different from the treatment of nutritional vitamin D deficiency rickets. Hypophosphatasia is characterized by a significant decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase, as well as normal serum calcium and phosphorus. The disease is caused by mutations in TNSALP gene. Patients with achondroplasia show short-limbed dwarfism and special face in addition to bow legs, but with normal serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. Bone X-ray and FGFR3 gene test contribute to the diagnosis. Vitamin D-dependent rickets is an autosomal recessive disease, and active vitamin D supplement is effective in treatment of the disease. Patients with pycnodysostosis may be first seen at hospital because of large anterior fontanelle; in addition, they also show obtuse mandibular angle, dental abnormalities and dysplastic nails, which are caused by mutations in TSK gene. Children with ectodermal dysplasia may see a doctor for sparse hair, and they are easily misdiagnosed with nutritional vitamin D deficiency rickets. Ectodermal dysplasia is related to EDA, EDAR, EDARADD and WNT 10A genes.