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Clonorchis sinensis Infestation Promotes Three-Dimensional Aggregation and Invasion of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells.


Numerous experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infestation and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, the role of C. sinensis in the increased invasiveness and proliferation involved in the malignancy of CCA has not been addressed yet. Here, we investigated the possibility that C. sinensis infestation promotes expression of focal and cell-cell adhesion proteins in CCA cells and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Adhesion proteins help maintain cell aggregates, and MMPs promote the three-dimensional invasion of cells into the neighboring extracellular matrix (ECM). Using a novel microfluidic assay, we quantitatively addressed the role of excretory-secretory products (ESPs) gradients from C. sinensis in promoting the invasion of cells into the neighboring ECM.